Why Do Vitamins Work
The pathogenesis of this disease is believed to be multifactorial, involving genetic factors, inflammatory factors, oxidative stress, and other factors. The macula may be highly susceptible to oxidative stress since it has a high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids and is continuously exposed to light and oxygen.There is strong evidence suggesting that lipofuscin is derived from oxidatively damaged photoreceptors. It has also been shown that age-related oxidation occurred more aggressively in groups assigned to no anti-oxidant supplementation as compared to those who received supplementation. The retina’s defenses to such processes include enzymes, such as selenium-dependent glutathione (GSH) peroxidases and catalases, and antioxidant nutrients such as vitamins E and C and carotenoids. With this understanding, it has been hypothesized that people with low levels of these antioxidants may be more prone to oxidative damage in the retina which may ultimately lead to AMD. Taking this a step forward, consuming higher levels of these antioxidants may protect an individual from developing AMD.